Document Type


Publication Date

January 2012


In this paper we consider the anti-slavery ministry of Rev. John G. Fee and the unlikely establishment of Berea College in Kentucky in the 1850s; the first college in the southern United States to be coeducationally and racially integrated. The Berea case illustrates how early twentieth century legal institutions were suffused with racism and justifications for racial discrimination even to the extent that they neutered the laws intended to provide redress to black citizens, while the court approved of racial prejudice as a natural protection from what it considered to be an unnatural amalgamation.


Reprinted with permission from The Journal of Negro Education, Volume 82, Number 1, ©2013. For more information please visit