Date of Award

January 2016

Degree Type

Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership and Policy Studies

First Advisor

Charles S. Hausman

Department Affiliation

Educational Leadership and Policy Studies

Second Advisor

James R. Bliss

Department Affiliation

Educational Leadership and Policy Studies

Third Advisor

Robert John Thomas

Department Affiliation

Mathematics and Statistics


The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to determine if there was an association between achievement on Kentucky’s college readiness assessments and intervention delivery methods: (1) face-to-face tutoring only; (2) online/digital tutoring only; or (3) blended learning tutoring provided to underprepared twelfth grade mathematics students. Data used for this study were provided voluntarily from four Kentucky districts representing six high schools. Descriptive statistics and Chi Square statistical significance research methods were used to determine the association between assessments and intervention instructional delivery models. Bivariate correlations were used to determine a weak correlation between Kentucky’s three college readiness assessments (ACT, COMPASS, and KYOTE). It was found that blended learning tutoring was associated with the greatest achievement on each of the three Kentucky college readiness assessments, greatest mean scale scores, and overall college readiness achievement statuses when compared to face-to-face tutoring and online/digital tutoring intervention instruction.