EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship


Environmental Health Science

Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 2018


Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines’ milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers (N = 25), street vendors (N = 21), and three MVMs (N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya. Antibiotic residue surveillance occurred during December 2016 and January 2017 using Idexx SNAP tests for tetracyclines, sulfamethazine, beta-lactams, and gentamicin. Overall, 24% of MVM samples and 24% of street vendor samples were presumably positive for at least one antibiotic. No commercial samples were positive. Research into cost-effective screening methods and increased monitoring by food safety agencies are needed to uphold HAACP for improving antibiotic stewardship throughout the Kenyan private dairy industry.


Research funded by EKU Office of Sponsored Programs via a Mini-Grant from the University-Funded Scholarship (UFS) Program. Additional support was provided by partial cost-shares from the Master of Public Health Program and the Department of Environmental Health Science. Publication fees were covered through a cost-match between the Office of Sponsored Programs, the Master of Public Health Program, and the Department of Environmental Health though a UFS Dissemination Support Award. The first author, Amos Kosgey, received was an Association of Environmental Health Academic Programs (AEHAP) Student Research Competition winner and he was honored and presented the paper in July 2017 at the National Environmental Health Association Annual Education Conference in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Journal Title

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Journal Issue

American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene