Document Type (Journals)

Original Research


As online and hybrid classes have become increasingly more prevalent in higher education, the flipped classroom structure has emerged as a viable, evidence-based, option for healthcare programs. In a flipped classroom, students view pre-recorded video lectures and complete reading assignments before class, and synchronous class time can then be used for active learning activities. Class sessions offer opportunities for group work, review of complex content, and access to instructor assistance with assignments. To effectively implement a flipped classroom approach, students must prepare prior to class time. One method for encouraging student accountability is to assign preparatory homework. This experimental study compared two types of accountability homework on measures of achievement, satisfaction, ease of use, and perceived learning from two types of assignments: concept maps or question-and-answer homework. Study participants included 46 first year occupational therapy students attending an online foundational occupational therapy course. Treatment included weekly completion of either a concept map or a set of three question-and-answer homework assignments over a period of three weeks. Findings suggested that accountability homework assignments of either type were helpful in promoting achievement. Results further revealed that satisfaction and perceived learning were greater in the concept map group as compared to the question-and-answer group. It is recommended that occupational therapy and other allied health instructors use accountability homework to reinforce student learning in the flipped classroom. The use of concept map assignments in particular has the potential to improve schema acquisition, critical thinking, and deep learning, which in turn can support educational success.


Dr. Melisa Kaye, EdD, OTR/L is assistant professor of occupational therapy (OT) at San Jose State University. Her research interests include multimedia learning, innovation in healthcare education, and child-family resilience. Melisa is also a pediatric OT and the director of Firefly Center: Therapy Services for Children in Burlingame, California.

Brian K. Kim, OTS is an occupational therapy graduate student at San Jose State University.

Declaration of Interest

The authors report no declarations of interest.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.