One of the most controversial areas of focus in the reform movement relates to the appraisal of K-12 level teachers’ instructional effectiveness, particularly as measured by the achievement levels of their students. While one would expect teachers to be accountable for student learning and be evaluated for their instructional efficacy, the discussion has now expanded into the domain of performance-based pay for teachers—directly based, at least in part, on student growth factors. This issue is critically relevant not only to the K-12 educational workforce, but also to teacher educators involved in preparing these teachers to be effective and successful in their roles.

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