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Adventure Therapy in the Lives of Adolescents and Men

George Thompson

In America, adolescent drug use, violent crime, and behavioral problems are on the rise while their academic performance, stability at home, opportunities for employment, and community health are all on the decline. Adventure therapy is a relatively new and unique approach to providing therapy for these individuals.

Adventure Therapy can be defined as “the prescriptive use of adventure experiences provided by mental health professionals, often conducted in natural settings that kinesthetically engage clients on cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels” (Gass, Gillis, and Russell, 2012). Researchers are finding that adventure therapy produces several benefits and is gaining popularity around the nation.

College Students’ Behaviors, Perceptions, Beliefs, and Attitudes Regarding Tanning Bed Use

Fawna Playforth

•Among the types of cancer diagnosed every year, skin cancer is the most common. Of all skin cancers diagnosed, basal and squamous cell skin cancers affect about 2.2 million and melanoma affects more than 76,000 Americans each year (ACS, 2013b). •Tanning bed use has been associated with a 59% higher risk of melanoma and is particularly dangerous for people who begin tanning younger than age 35 (CDC, 2013b). The data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey found the highest prevalence rates of indoor tanning were among white women aged 18-21 (31.8%) and 22-25 (29.6% (CDC, 2012). This is the traditional college age for most universities in the Midwest and south •In KY, the rate of new melanoma cases was 14 % higher than the national average during 2002-2006 (EPA, 2010). With the lack of education interventions and policies to reduce indoor tanning, it is estimated in 2014 there will be 1,540 new cases of melanoma across the state (ACS, 2014).

Comparison of American and International University Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Arabs in the United States, Post September 11, 2001

Sara Al-Kahandi

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Middle Eastern population in the United States became a target of racial profiling by law enforcement. The USA Patriot Act, mass interviews and NSEERS. (Henderson et al, 2006 / Strossen, 2004). However, Arab students have continued to attend American universities. In fact, in as recently as 2013, there has been a seven percent increase in the enrollment of International students in colleges and universities in the United States with most of the growth driven by China and Saudi Arabia. (Open Doors, 2014) In a 2010 study by Jadallah and El-Khoury, a participant describes discrimination by American and International students at her university. It’s just that people treat me differently…Most other International students on my college campus feel the same…A Vietnamese-American guy said to me ‘oh, (name), you could really pull off a suicide bombing here and no one would know because you look innocent. Because the Arab and International populations are integral to American universities, it is imperative that greater awareness and the prevention of discrimination occur on college campuses.

Comparison of Odonata Populations in Natural and Constructed Emergent Wetlands in the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky

Brittany Brookshire


Wetlands provide valuable hydrological functions and provide valuable niches for many small species of animals, including dragonflies (Biebighauser 2011). Without wetlands serving as reproductive habitat the dragonfly population would decrease exponentially. Research has shown that in the past forty years Kentucky has lost up to 80% of its own natural wetlands (Brown & Richter 2012).

Wetlands provide: §Niches for small mammals, insects, amphibians and birds §Hydrology and flood prevention for surrounding areas §Habitat and resting areas for Migratory Waterfowl.

Odonates could be important to discovering many of the variations between natural and artificial wetlands. Dragonflies and Damselflies are sensitive to environmental conditions, therefore they can act as biological indicators.

OBJECTIVES- My objective in this research is to measure the Odonata populations at various natural and artificial emergent wetlands and to compare these populations to biotic and abiotic variables such as hydrology, vegetation types and wetland condition. I believe that if the wetlands being studied prove to be healthy then the dragonfly and damselfly populations at the individual wetlands will be high in species richness and diversity, while the wetlands that are less healthy will have a low species richness and diversity

Conservation Genetics of Crawfish Frogs at Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge

Dana B. Leigh

Crawfish frogs (Lithobates areolatus) have been experiencing significant population declines across their range over the last several decades due to widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. The Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge (BONWR) in southeastern Indiana, the easternmost locality of crawfish frog populations, houses recently discovered populations of crawfish frogs. We studied these populations to (1) determine the diversity and distribution of genetic variability among populations at BONWR and compare this to other genetic studies of crawfish frogs and (2) examine how landscape features and distance affect the distribution of genetic variability. We used 7 microsatellite loci to genotype frogs collected from eight sites on BONWR from the 2012 and 2013 breeding seasons. Data will be presented in the context of how landscape features and distance between sampling sites impact genetic variation and distribution across the landscape.

Deaf Studies Through the Eyes of Anthropology

Emily Skanes

For years, the Deaf community has struggled to achieve their language to be seen as a true language and to have empowerment. Research in anthropology has aided the community in this effort by answering questions like: Is Sign Language a real language, what is deaf culture, and how do deaf view their identity? The concepts discussed include: deaf community, culture, identity, membership, ethnicity, and deafness vs. Deafhood. This Literature analysis will identify the efforts previous studies have done and identify what questions still need to be addressed. This paper suggests that more ethnographic research should be conducted with the deaf culture.

Does Child Abuse positively correlate with Borderline Personality Disorder?

Stevy L. Jones, Eastern Kentucky University

Abuse of any kind is a horrible event. Individuals are left with physical and emotional scars that can last a lifetime. Abuse during childhood can be detrimental to a person's psychological adjustment during adolescence and adulthood. We sought out to answer the research question, "Does child abuse positively correlate with borderline personality disorder?" We analyzed 12 studies that compared different types of child abuse and the effects it has on borderline personality disorder (BPD). For these 12 studies the average effect size was (r=.22). Emotional abuse had the highest correlation (r=.26) and then sexual abuse with (r=.22). The moderator variables did not have significant results. The average effect size is a moderate size, and it does not show that there is an important correlation between child abuse and BPD.

Effect of Incubation and Mind Wandering on Creative Problem Solving

Joshua Back, Eastern Kentucky University

An incubation effect refers to improvements in problem solving after an individual takes a break from working on a problem. Previous research suggests several explanations for incubation effects. For example, some research has shown that subjects benefit most from a break when they are given an undemanding task rather than a demanding task during the break (incubation period) (Baird, Smallwood, Mrazek, Franklin, & Schooler, 2012). The undemanding task allows mind wandering, which is believed to create the opportunity for new insights into previously attempted problems. Other research has shown that a break allows subjects to overcome fixation on overly narrow approaches to a problem (Smith & Blankenship, 1989). In the present study, we further explore these explanations. EKU Psychology students are asked to solve Unusual Uses Task problems (e.g. find “unusual uses for a brick”) (Guilford, 1967). We look at success on second attempts to solve these problems among subjects who either do not receive a break, receive a break that includes a demanding task, or receive a break that includes an undemanding task. We predict that a break with an undemanding task will lead to the greatest success later on previously attempted problems.

Effects of Dissolution of Biomass in Ionic Liquids Using Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) Mass Spectrometry

Casey J. Howdieshell, Eastern Kentucky University

Biomass has become increasing important in recent years. Through pretreatment and saccharification processes sugars produced by algae result in biofuel production. For these processes to occur, cellulose must be separated from hemicellulose and lignin components. Major obstacles in development of these processes is lignin, an organic polymer that contributes to plant cell wall stability. Ionic liquids are low-temperature molten salts that possess chemical and physical properties which aide in dissolution of whole biomass. This study focuses on the interactions of quiescent switchgrass (Panicum vigatum) with nine different ionic liquids. These interactions were tested using microscopic techniques as well as Mass Spectrometry coupled with a DART ion source. The capacity for dissolution in various ionic liquids were quantified. Results from these studies show the effectiveness and parameters for separation of biomass components. Effective separation will lead to a better biofuel yield as well as potential for commercial scale lignin production.

Effects of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB) on Work and Health Related Outcomes

Dorothy B. Johnson

Organizations have been implementing family-friendly benefits to help with the increasing demand of dependent care responsibilities. These benefits have been underutilized (Allen, 2009). One reason is due to the lack of supervisor support. Researchers have identified the underlying behaviors of a family supportive supervisor and has termed them family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB).

This study examined the processes underlying how family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB) influence positive job and health related outcomes, specifically affective commitment, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being

High prevalence of Ranavirus infection in permanent constructed wetlands in Eastern Kentucky, USA

Jennifer Strong

Two important drivers of global amphibian declines are land-use change and infectious diseases. Hundreds of permanent wetlands have been constructed on ridge tops for wildlife management in eastern Kentucky within the same landscape as natural, ephemeral wetlands. Constructed wetlands support a different amphibian community than natural wetlands, and some of these species have been associated with ranavirus outbreaks. Our objective was to test for occurrence of ranavirus and amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in amphibian populations of natural and constructed wetlands in the Daniel Boone National Forest, Kentucky. We selected Eastern Newts (Notopthalmus viridescens) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) as representative species of constructed and natural wetland amphibian communities. Samples taken from 10 adult newts from five constructed wetlands and 10 Wood Frog larvae from one natural wetland in May 2012 were tested to determine the presence of ranavirus and chytrid fungus. No Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis was detected, but 9 samples from two constructed wetlands were positive for ranavirus (prevalence = 70% and 33%). Adult newts are known to move among wetlands in close proximity including permanent and ephemeral wetlands and are a potential reservoir species for transmitting ranavirus to natural wetlands.

Identifying the Strengths and Areas of Needed Improvement in Therapeutic Recreation

Eden E. Fisher, Eastern Kentucky University

This qualitative study utilized a panel of four recognized experts in the field of therapeutic recreation using SWOT analysis. There are currently 54 million Americans living with a disability, 830,000 of those people are living in Kentucky. At least 153,000 Kentuckians (4.0% of the population) have difficulties performing activities of daily living. The need for Therapeutic Recreation services is visibly needed, hence this qualitative study.

The purpose of this research is to define and determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to the field of Therapeutic Recreation. Strengths include holistic benefits, national and state statistics, and the personal interviews on the benefits for therapeutic recreation. Weaknesses of Therapeutic Recreation are insurance reimbursement in Health Care Services and disconnect between academia and practitioners. Opportunities of therapeutic recreation include licensure for Kentucky, and help with the increased employment opportunities. Threats include the slow elimination of Therapeutic Recreation services in Kentucky.

Impacting and Improving Communities: Identifying the best in the Parks and Recreation field

Jamie L. Woolery

For both Roswell and Westerville a main focus has been on inclusion and diversity. Both are focusing on doing anything it might take to make sure everyone in their communities can participate and become successful.

Cohorts that both Westerville and Roswell are adapting to fit the needs of are teens, senior adults, families, minorities, and persons with disabilities.

They are creating both innovative programs along with experimental programs to see what will fit the needs of their communities the best, with great success they have become NRPA Gold Medal Finalists in 2013!

Interactions between species in an anthropogenically altered ridge-top wetland ecosystem

Chelsea Kross

Hundreds of wetlands have been constructed as permanent water sources in a ridge-top ecosystem in eastern Kentucky where there were naturally only ephemeral wetlands. Consequently, the ecosystem was colonized by an amphibian community of species with a =period that requires a long hydroperiod (e.g., Newts) and many that are top amphibian predators. In contrast, the natural ephemeral wetlands support amphibians with a shorter larval period (e.g., Wood Frogs). Some ephemeral wetland species will breed in constructed wetlands; thus, there could be negative impacts on these species. Our objectives were to: (1) determine if species of the ephemeral and constructed amphibian communities interact, and (2) evaluate positive and negative impacts on these communities. We selected Eastern Newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) to represent the constructed and natural amphibian communities, respectively. We sampled six constructed and six ephemeral wetlands throughout 2013 and 2014. We counted wood frog egg masses and estimated survival bi-weekly throughout the breeding season (February–May) at each wetland. Newt populations were sampled once in May, July, September, and November, 2013 and January, February, and March, 2014. Individuals were measured and weighed to determine body condition and individually marked using visual implant elastomer for recapture. Data suggest that wood frog reproductive success is negatively impacted when eggs are laid in constructed wetlands. Newts in constructed wetlands with Wood Frog eggs present had higher body condition. Understanding the impacts of how amphibian species interact as habitat loss and modification increase will continue to be critical for amphibian conservation.

Landstat Evaluation of Trumpter Swan (Cygnus Buccinator) Historical Nesting Sites in Yellowstone National Park

Laura E. Cockrell, Eastern Kentucky University

•Trumpeter Swan Rocky Mountain Population Tri-state Flock nests in the Greater Yellowstone region. •Lack of high quality nesting habitat may be limiting growth of swans in the Tri-state Flock. •The goal of this study was to use Landsat images to discern differences between historical nesting sites and evaluate current nesting sites within Yellowstone National Park. •Satellite imagery allows flexible modeling and frequent coverage (16-18 days).

Linking the Triarchic Model of Psychopathy to the MMPI-2-RF

Jade A. Petty, Eastern Kentucky University

Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by a collection of pathological traits that include deficits in affective and interpersonal functioning as well as various behavioral problems. The Triarchic Model of Psychopathy was recently proposed as a means of capturing the phenotypic variance of the disorder with the constructs of meanness, boldness, and disinhibition. The purpose of the present study was to examine the triarchic factors of psychopathy in relation to the MMPI-2-RF in a sample of 139 incarcerated male offenders. We used exploratory structural equation modeling to identify the triarchic constructs with indicators that included the 4 facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, 8 content scales of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised, and the 3 scales of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. The model exhibited mediocre fit (CFI=.91, RMSEA=.10, SRMR=.045); the factor loadings conformed to a conceptually accepted pattern. As such, this model was accepted as a latent representation of the triarchic psychopathy model. MMPI-2-RF scales were related to the triarchic factors in a conceptually relevant fashion. Boldness was associated with markers of low negative emotionality, social dominance, and low fear. Disinhibition was associated with antisocial behavior, high levels of negative emotionality, and poor behavioral control. Although the results for meanness were not as strong as the other two factors, it was nevertheless associated to a moderate degree with high levels of aggression, anger proneness, and a lack of interpersonal attachment. Overall, our results suggests that the triarchic model of psychopathy can be captured well using the MMPI-2-RF.

Lurking Element: A Study About the Dangers of Lead and Other Harmful Elements in Northern Kentucky Toy Vending Machines

Brittany M. Wells, Eastern Kentucky University

Imagine yourself walking into a dollar store with a young child. As soon as you reach the door, the child is drawn to the vending machines that contain numerous toys. As a parent, you give your child a couple of quarters to get a toy of his or her choice. After the child receives the toy, she marks it by licking and chewing it. As consumers, we tend to believe those toys are safe for use, but sometimes those toys can contain toxic chemicals, such as lead and other metals. Although lead exposure has decreased tremendously over the past three decades, there still concerns about exposure, especially with toys in vending machines and other consumer products for children. An experimental study was conducted by collecting numerous small toys from the Northern Kentucky River Region, and examining them for lead and nine (9) other toxic elements including arsenic, barium, bromine, cadmium, chlorine, chromium, mercury, antimony, and selenium. New global regulations from the Consumer Product Safety Commission related to lead levels in children’s toys and other commercial products have increased the need to analyze products for lead and other toxic elements. The research conducted by Eastern Kentucky University’s (EKU) Department of Environmental Health Science (EHS) addresses a part of this need. The research also shows a need for technologies that will help businesses and manufacturers monitor their products for the presence of lead and other toxic elements, such as arsenic, mercury and cadmium.

Meta-Analysis of Close Relationships and Goal Attainment

Amanda Brady
Jennifer Wilson, EKU
Nichole Davis, EKU

Everyone has goals that they desire to achieve in their lives. These goals span across many areas: relationships, education, career, health, etc. There are many factors that motivate people to achieve those goals. We were specifically interested in examining how goal attainment was different if people were personally motivated or if they were motivated by a significant other in their lives. Our research question was: "Do close relationships have an effect on goal attainment?" We located studies that compared personally-autonomous reasons (PAR) in children and adults to relationally-autonomous reasons (RAR) in children and adults. We compared 18 studies that analyzed this relationship. They found that RAR (d = 0.27) for goal pursuit were higher than PAR (d = 0.18). Comparing children to adults, a larger difference was found: RAR in children (d = 0.30), RAR in adults (d = 0.26), PAR in children (d = 0.70) and PAR in adults (d = 0.15).

Neuroprotective effects of gamma-glutamyl cysteine ethylester on moderate traumatic brain injury

Jooyoung Cho, Eastern Kentucky University

Projecting the self into a virtual world

Kevin S. Smith, Eastern Kentucky University

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of perspective-taking instructions (PTI) on (a) the tendency to project aspects of the self onto a video game character and (b) the degree “telepresence” within a virtual world. Perspective taking instructions encourage subjects to imagine themselves as a story character. It has been found in the past that PTI may cause an individual to merge identities with a story character in written stories (Goldstein & Cialdini, 2007) and films (Davis et al., 1996). This study replicated these findings using a video game. Male video gamers played a video game and completed character trait measures about themselves and about the game character. Subjects given perspective-taking instructions (PTI) had more overlap in the character traits ascribed to themselves and the character than did control subjects. PTI did not significantly impact telepresence. Positive and negative implications of these findings are discussed.

Religious Orientation and Psychological Wellness

Jeremy Gibson, Eastern Kentucky University

In the present study, the association between religious orientation and wellness was examined, as well as the differences between men and women. College students (n = 501) took an online survey regarding their Christian religious orientation and current psychological wellness. It was predicted that differences in the interaction between religious orientation and psychological well-being would emerge between the sexes. Results of the study showed significant differences among gender. Male ratings (n = 118) showed no significant correlation with any positive or negative psychological wellness characteristics. Women’s ratings (n = 381) showed significant correlations within Intrinsic, Quest, and Orthodoxy religious orientations. These results indicate that female’s religious orientation has a significant association with their psychological well-being.

Social Media and the News

Jacob A. Blair, Eastern Kentucky University

The way news is received by the general public has changed. If you want news fast, isn't the best way to receive information based on the use of social media?

University Students’ Lyme Disease Knowledge and Protective Behaviors Pre-Versus Post-Intervention

Karen Gilbert

Lyme disease, a bacterial disease caused by the tick-borne organism Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common (over 90%) vector-borne disease in North America (Radolf, Caimano, Stevenson, & Hu, 2012). B. burdgorferi is carried by the Black-Legged Tick, Ixodes scapularis (also known as the “deer tick”).