Bullying perpetration and victimization are issues of increasing concern for researchers, educators, clinicians, parents and youth today. Bullying broadly refers to aggressive behaviors including physical aggression (hitting, shoving, tripping, etc.), verbal aggression (teasing, name-calling, threatening) as well as relational aggression (rumor spreading, exclusion, isolation from clique). Bullying is thought to differ from normal peer conflict in that it is often repeated and involves a difference in power between the bully and victim. Bullying behaviors also extend to the use of the internet and cell-phones to harass and intimidate recipients. Bullying through these mediums is commonly referred to as cyberbullying. Although initially studied in the context of schools, bullying research has since been extended to sibling relationships, workplace interactions and dating and intimate relationships.
Espelage, Dorothy L.
"Understanding the Complexity of School Bully Involvement,"
The Chautauqua Journal: Vol. 2
, Article 20.
Available at: https://encompass.eku.edu/tcj/vol2/iss1/20