Date of Award


Degree Type

Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership and Policy Studies

First Advisor

Charles S. Hausman

Department Affiliation

Educational Leadership and Policy Studies


The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of three different training programs on timed swims made by competitive teenage sprint freestyle swimmers of both genders during a typical five-month high school season. Coaches from five teams assigned 49 female and 38 male swimmers from age 13 through age 17 (M = 14.97 years) into one of three training programs. The programs were P1 (swim only, n = 20), P2 (swim plus plyometrics, n = 59), and P3 (swim plus plyometrics and weights, n = 8). Competitive swim experience ranged from novice to seven years or more (M = 5.01 years). One-way ANOVA's were conducted on post times, gain times and standardized gain times for both the 50 and 100 yard freestyles. A standardized gain time was operationalized as a swimmer's percentage gain toward achieving a USA Swimming AAAA time standard. ANCOVA tests of between-subjects effects were also performed to compare post times and gain times. These tests controlled for the effects of gender, age, total swim yards during practice, and years of swimming experience. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictor variables of gain and post times for the 50 and 100 yard freestyles among high school swimmers. Gender, age, total swim practice minutes and years of competitive swim experience were among the predictors. Training program P3 produced significantly higher 50 freestyle gain times than did either program P1 (p = .028) or P2 (p = .001). Similarly, program P3 also produced significantly higher 100 freestyle gain times than did either program P1 (p = .012) or P2 (p = .002). At both distances, program P1 was slightly more effective than program P2. Regression models for both freestyle events were found to significantly predict gain times. Total swim yards (50 free) and total swim minutes (100 free) were found to be non-significant predictors.

A swim training program consisting, time-wise, of 80% swimming and 20% plyometrics plus weights is significantly more effective in improving sprint freestyle times of high school swimmers than a swimming only program or a program of 80% swimming and 20% plyometrics.