Date of Award

January 2016

Degree Type

Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership and Policy Studies

First Advisor

Charles S. Hausman

Department Affiliation

Educational Leadership and Policy Studies

Second Advisor

James R. Bliss

Department Affiliation

Educational Leadership and Policy Studies

Third Advisor

Robert Biggin

Department Affiliation

Educational Leadership and Policy Studies


Racial discrimination plays a major role in out-of-school suspensions. Research shows that when students are suspended, they are removed from their learning environment, which can lead to poor academic achievement, lower graduation rates, and higher delinquency. The distribution of racial and ethnic minorities that are being suspended or expelled reveal disparities between the groups. Within the United States public school system, racial disparities have been documented over time to show African-American students are suspended from school at higher rates than any other race (Arcia, 2007; Bulter et al, 2012; Rocque, 2010; Skiba et al, 2002; Townsend, 2000).

School systems should be more proactive when dealing with student learning outcomes based on research and become more involved in student retention. Schools administrators should provide students with strong mentoring programs, family involvement activities and activities that build strong relationships with the parents and teachers of the students. The findings from the current study look at the impact out-of-school suspension has on African-American males and the outcomes for academic achievement. Since out-of-school suspension is increasing in many school districts across the United States, education leaders need to look at the effectiveness of suspension.