Date of Award

January 2021

Degree Type

Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership and Policy Studies

First Advisor

Bill Phillips

Department Affiliation

Teaching, Learning, and Educational Leadership

Second Advisor

Andrew W. Place

Department Affiliation

Teaching, Learning, and Educational Leadership

Third Advisor

Charles S. Hausman

Department Affiliation

Teaching, Learning, and Educational Leadership


This study explores how extracurricular activities experiences affect students’ leadership development outcomes. The current status of students’ experiences of extracurricular activities and leadership development outcomes identified. Also, it analyzed the correlation, as well as how they contribute to the college students’ leadership. Lastly, the result was compared between international students and domestic students. This study focused on the individual, group, and community/society values of the Social Change Model of Leadership Development. Data was collected from 708 college students and analyzed using quantitative methodology. The results showed that college students’ participation in extracurricular organizations were relatively lower than high school students. Gender and class level, student type were positively associated with student leadership development. Specifically, higher involvement in extracurricular activity produces higher leadership development outcomes. Students’ self-perception of leadership skills were the most significant predictors of all values of leadership development outcomes. Participation in extracurricular activities exerted a direct positive effect on leadership development outcomes. Educators should be challenged explicitly to enhance student’s participation in leadership development and provide bridge programs that give domestic students more opportunities to participate in extracurricular activities with international students. This study can guide leaders in higher education to structure student participation opportunities that positively affect a student’s leadership development outside the classroom.