Date of Award

January 2022

Degree Type

Open Access Thesis

Document Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Karim M. Abdel-Hay

Department Affiliation


Second Advisor

Jamie D. Fredericks

Department Affiliation


Third Advisor

Jerome May

Department Affiliation



The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is an international agency that monitors the use of Performance Enhancing Drugs (PEDs) in sports; their mission is “to lead a collaborative worldwide movement for doping-free sport” (Who We Are, 2022). For this mission, the WADA needs quick, sensitive, reproducible, and accurate methods for analyzing athletes’ biological fluids for possible PEDs. This research focuses on developing and validating simple, sensitive, rapid, and reliable gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods for the analysis of two hormone and metabolic modulators, toremifene and trimetazidine. Previously, there has been limited GC-MS methods used to analyze toremifene and trimetazidine. Quantification of these two PEDs was based on the peak area instrument response. The performance of the proposed methods was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) according to the International Council on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines. Furthermore, the developed method was applied for the determination of trimetazidine in urine using liquid-liquid extraction with a 37% extraction efficiency.