Date of Award


Degree Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Jerry K. Palmer


The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore the effectiveness of any telehealth interventions that report sleep outcomes on adolescents, ages 11-20 years old. It was hypothesized that most studies will favor telehealth treatment, regardless of type of treatment, and will present medium to high effect sizes sleep improvements. The following databases were searched to determine any research articles published after 2000 and present as of 8 July 2023: PsycINFO, PubMed, and Cochrane. In total, 15 studies, five pre-post and ten Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT), fit the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analyzed. Subjective (self-report) and objective (actigraphy based) sleep outcomes were reported pre-post and pre-follow up, if any reported. Some of the sleep outcomes analyzed, Total Sleep Time (TST), SE (Sleep Efficiency), SOL (Sleep Onset Latency), Wake sleep Onset (WASO), Time in Bed (TIB), SQ (Sleep Quality), ISI (Insomnia Sleep Index) and Holland Sleep Disorder Questionnaire (HSDQ), reported small to medium effect sizes, except for subjective Sleep Efficiency (SE) and the sleep questionnaires, Holland Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (HSDQ) and Insomnia Sleep Index (ISI). Subjective SE had medium to high effect size for both pre-post (d= .78) and pre-follow (d= 1.19). ISI also reported medium to high effect size (d= -1.37), along with HSDQ (d= -1.00). The sleep questionnaires reported negative effect sizes as lower scores in both HDSQ and ISI indicate less presence of sleep disorders. This meta-analysis is in line with previous relevant meta-analyses as it highlights the effectiveness of telehealth and the promise it holds for the future of sleep interventions, along with other disorders interventions.