Proteomics analysis provides insight into caloric restriction mediated oxidation and expression of brain proteins associated with age-related impaired cellular processes: Mitochondrial dysfunction, glutamate dysregulation and impaired protein synthesis

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Tanea ReedORCID iD icon



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Age-related impairment of functionality of the central nervous system (CNS) is associated with increased susceptibility to develop many neurodegenerative diseases. Increased oxidative stress in the CNS of aged animals is manifested by increased protein oxidation, which is believed to contribute to the age-related learning and memory deficits. Glutamate dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired protein synthesis are observed in aged brains, along with increased protein oxidation. Interestingly, all of these age-related cellular alterations can be improved by caloric restriction (CR), which can also improve the plasticity and recovery of the CNS. Although the beneficial effects of CR on brains are well established, the mechanism(s) of its action remains unclear. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of CR in the brain, we located the brain regions that are benefited the most from reduced oxidative stress by CR. Along with other brain regions, striatum (ST) showed significantly decreased bulk protein carbonyl levels and hippocampus (HP) showed decreased bulk protein 2-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels in CR aged rats when compared to those of age matched controls. To determine which proteins were oxidatively modified in these brain regions, we used parallel proteomics approach to identify the proteins that altered in oxidation and expression. The specific carbonyl levels of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a-enolase (ENO1), inositol monophosphatase (INSP1), and F1-ATPase Chain B (ATP-F1B) were significantly decreased in ST of aged CR rats. In contrast, the expression levels of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PKG1), inosine monophosphase cyclohydrolase (IMPCH) and F1-ATPase Chain A (ATP-F1A) were significantly increased in the ST of CR rats. In the hippocampus of CR rats, the specific 3-NT levels of malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PKG1) and 14-3-3 zeta protein were significantly decreased and expression levels of DLP1 splice variant 1 (DLP1), mitochrondrial aconitase (ACO2), dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH), neuroprotective peptide H3 (NPH3), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) are increased. Moreover, an unnamed protein product (UNP1) with similar sequence to initiation factor 2 (IF-2) was decreased in the HP of CR rats. Our data support the hypothesis that CR induces a mile metabolic stress response by increased the production of neurotrophic proteins, therefore, priming neurons against apoptosis. Moreover, our study shows that the improvement of glutamate dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and protein sysnthesis by CR is, at least partially, due to the CR-mediated alteration of the oxidation or the expression of PKM2, ENO1, INSP1, ATP-F1B, PKG1, IMPCH, ATP-F1A MDH, PKG1 and 14-3-3 zeta protein, DLP1, ACO2, DLDH, NPH3, eIF-5A and UNP1. This study provides valuable insights into the mechanisms of the beneficial factors on brain aging by CR.

Journal Title

Neurobiology of Aging

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