Evaluation and Management of Scapular Dyskinesis in Overhead Athletes

Author ORCID Identifier

Aaron SciasciaORCID iD iconhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5518-4615


Exercise and Sport Science

Document Type


Publication Date



Purpose of Review This review will outline scapular function in throwing, discuss scapular dyskinesis as an impairment of function that can be associated with throwing injuries and altered performance, and present an algorithm that encompasses guidelines for evaluation and can serve as a basis for treatment. Recent Findings Optimal scapular function is integral to optimal shoulder function. Multiple roles of the scapula in arm function and throwing have been identified while scapular dysfunction continues to be associated with various shoulder pathologies. Although scapular motion alterations may be common in overhead athletes, various reports have shown that identification and management of the alterations can result in improved rehabilitation and performance outcomes. Summary Baseball throwing occurs as the result of integrated, multisegmented, sequential joint motion, and muscle activation within the kinetic chain. The scapula is a key component link within the chain through its function to maximize the scapulohumeral rhythm and efficient throwing mechanics. Evaluation and management beginning with the scapula can produce improved outcomes related to shoulder pathology in overhead athletes.

Journal Title

Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine

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