Relational motivation and well-being: A cross-cultural comparison
Culture plays a crucial role in motivation. Personally autonomous reasons (PARs) for goals reflect the needs, desires, and commitment for oneself, whereas relationally autonomous reasons (RARs) for goals reflect the needs within close relationships. It was hypothesized that PARs are the better predictor of well-being for Americans, while RARs are the better predictor of well-being for Japanese. One-hundred and seventy American and 219 Japanese university students completed well-being questionnaires and rated seven goals on several attributes. The results confirmed that RARs were a better predictor of well-being for Japanese than for Americans, but PARs predicted well-being for both groups. Implications for theories of goal motivation are discussed.
Yi, L., Gore, J. S., & Kanagawa, C. (2014). Relational motivation and well-being: A cross-cultural comparison. Japanese Psychological Research Jpn Psychol Res, 56(4), 320-330. DOI; 10.1111/jpr.12056