Document Type (Journals)

Original Research


As future healthcare practitioners, kinesiology students must become expert learners who choose strategies resulting in deep and durable learning. Metacognitive instruction goes beyond the use of study skills as it focuses on student reflection and evaluation of their learning success, and ultimately establishes effective learning skills, a requirement for professional practice. To examine if an intervention in a kinesiology course affected metacognitive awareness and use of metacognitive strategies, a quasi-experimental research design utilized a convenience sample of 89 upper division undergraduate occupational therapy students and master’s level athletic training students enrolled in kinesiology courses. Using an online survey including the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (Schraw & Dennison, 1994) and three Likert scale questions about perception of study skills, pre-test and post-test data were collected over three years, and 6-month follow-up data were collected during the final two years of the study. The intervention included information about metacognition and key study tips, five learning activities, and teaching techniques to promote metacognition. Treating the pre-test group as the reference group, the results showed that the post-test and 6-month follow-up test groups were significant predictors of students’ scores on the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, indicating an improved and sustained metacognitive awareness after completing the course. The intervention was found to have a positive association with scores of planning, information management, comprehension monitoring, and evaluation. These results indicate the value of metacognition instruction. Considering that not all students come equipped with metacognitive skills, instruction in this area could be beneficial to students.


Christina Davlin-Pater, Ph.D., ATC, EMT is an assistant professor and director of the master of science in athletic training program at Xavier University in Cincinnati, OH.

Leah S. Dunn, EdD, OTR/L is an assistant professor and Interim Capstone Coordinator in the Department of Occupational Therapy at Xavier University in Cincinnati, OH. She has 30 years of clinical and educator experience, with over 10 years in full-time academia.

Roy Bower, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor of Statistics in the Department of Mathematics at Furman University in Greenville, South Carolina. Dr. Bower's methodological research focuses on score tests for testing independence between two outcome variables for a variety of bivariate distributions, particularly in small samples. Dr. Bower also collaborates closely with students and faculty on interdisciplinary research projects.

Will Cipolli, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor of Statistics in the Department of Mathematics at Colgate University in Hamilton, New York. Dr. Cipolli's methodological research focuses on Bayesian nonparametric approaches to a variety of problems including multiple testing, density estimation, and supervised learning, but he also enjoys contributing to collaborate research projects.

Sara Biddle is a Health Sciences & Applied Math major at Furman University, who participated in 2020 summer research with Dr. Bower.

Declaration of Interest

The authors report no declarations of interest.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.