Document Type (Journals)

Original Research


Faculty seek methods that efficiently use their time, facilitate deep learning, and acquire competencies through the curriculum. The flipped classroom, a pedagogical approach, is proposed to be one solution to these issues. This study is a scoping review of how health care professional courses apply the flipped classroom model. The specific aims of this scoping review are: (a) determine the health care disciplines using and researching flipped classrooms, (b) identify and categorize instructional/course design and teaching and learning strategies used in flipped classroom literature, and (c) classify the levels of evidence-based education and trustworthiness in the studies as defined by Kirkpatrick's hierarchy. Following the PRISMA guidelines for sectioning the study, twenty studies were included in this scoping review. This scoping review identified various health care professions that have implemented the flipped classroom model at multiple levels of courses and curriculum to enhance student learning experiences. The flipped classroom design model provides different ways of improving learning environments, which could benefit student learning outcomes in academic performance and satisfaction. Pre-class and in-class active learning is the most common teaching and learning strategies; although less common, there is value identified in the after-class learning activities. Research suggests that blended learning and flipped classrooms can be effective in health care professional education to learn, retain, apply, and think critically compared to traditional teaching. Occupational therapy educators can use various learning strategies discussed in this study as an alternative or supplement to enhance or replace the traditional lecture-based teaching style.


Dr. Sapna Chakraborty, OTD, OTR/L is an Associate Professor and the inaugural Department Head of the Occupational Therapy Department at Missouri State University. She has practiced since 1990 in several settings and positions. Dr. Chakraborty’s scholarly work focuses on interprofessional education and treatment of individuals with various neurological conditions throughout the lifespan.

Dr. Monica L. Robinson, OTD, MS, OT/L, FAOTA has over 30 years of experience in clinical practice and operations. As a Clinical Associate Professor at Ohio State University, she researches the use of high-fidelity clinical simulations, interprofessional education, and active learning through the use of metacognition learning strategies. Dr. Robinson has expertise in scoping review methodology.

Dr. Denise Dermody, OTD, MAOT, OTR/L is an OT Program Director and Associate Professor at Allen College. She has been an OT for 18 years, including her work as a full-time faculty member for the past 5 years. Dr. Dermody’s scholarly experience includes pediatric feeding, school-based alternative seating, and OT/Health Science professions educational instruction.

Dr. Salvador Bondoc, OTD, OTR/L, FAOTAis a Professor of Occupational Therapy at Quinnipiac University. In 2012 earned the distinction of Fellow of the American Occupational Therapy Association for excellence in evidence-based physical rehabilitation. He has a strong record of effective leadership in higher education, clinical practice, and volunteering for professional organizations globally.

Declaration of Interest

The authors report no declarations of interest.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.